The cavalrymen were replaced by local customs officers and military chiefs, referred to as derebeys (“masters of the river”) or Ayan. These powerful local leaders formed de facto local dynasties supported by considerable military power. At the end of the 18th century, the sultan`s authority was almost non-existent outside the capital, Istanbul, and the empire was heavily decentralized. Originally, even one of the Ayans, Alemdar tried to end the chaos in the Empire through a treaty. He invited other Ayans to Istanbul. Although only four of them appeared, she and Alemdar signed a document on 29 September 1808 entitled “Charter of the Covenant” (Turkish: Sened`i`ttifak). The terms were in many agreements, there was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several political groups, including the Committee against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds requested by the Constitution.  As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession.
 In the Ottoman Empire, farmland was considered private property of the sultan. These lands (turkish: dirlik) were granted to the horsemen (turkish: t`marl`sipahi, “timariot sipahis”) in exchange for their military services during the war. The system resembled the system of fiefdoms of medieval Europe, except that the country was not heredic, which excluded the rise of feudalism in the Ottoman Empire. However, during the decline of the Empire in the 18th century, two factors provoked a kind of feudalism: a secret annex of the treaty granted immunity to Turkish authors for crimes committed between 1914 and 1922, including the Armenian genocide. The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey, but also the protection of the Greek-Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. However, the majority of Turkey`s Christian population and the Muslim population of Greece had already been expelled under the previous agreement signed by Greece and Turkey on the exchange of the Greek and Turkish population. Only the Greek Orthodox of Constantinople, Imbros and Tenedos (about 270,000 at the time) and the Muslim population of Western Thrace (about 129,120 in 1923) were excluded.  Article 14 of the Treaty granted the islands of Imbros (Gokéada) and Tenedos (Bozcaada) a “special administrative organization”, a right which the Turkish government had revoked on 17 February 1926. Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus (which had been leased to the British Empire after the Berlin Congress in 1878, but de jure remained Ottoman territory until the First World War).