The UN Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD) is an international agreement that combines the sustainability of land management and soil degradation issues with the environment. The convention focuses, among other things, on the restoration of degraded ecosystems in arid areas.  UNCCD, made up of 197 parties, is working to “create a future that avoids, minimizes and reverses land degradation and mitigates the effects of drought in affected areas at all levels.”  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 13 June 2012 – The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio-20) brings together the secretariats of the Conventions on Biological Diversity, Climate Change and Desertification and the Global Environment Fund as part of the Rio Conventions Pavilion to promote the implementation of these three multilateral environmental agreements on sustainable development. To stabilize GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, global anthropogenic GHG emissions are expected to peak and then decrease (see climate protection).  Lower stabilization levels would require an earlier peak and a reduction in emissions relative to higher stabilization levels.  The graph above shows annual variations in global GHG emissions (measured in CO2 equivalents) for different stabilization scenarios. The other two diagrams show changes in atmospheric GHG concentrations (in CO2 equivalent) and the overall average temperature of these scenarios. Lower stabilization levels are linked to lower levels of global warming than higher stabilization levels.  Academics and environmentalists criticize Article 3, paragraph 5 of the Convention, which states that any climate action that would limit international trade should be avoided. Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias, Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity, said: “We cannot afford to wait any longer to meet the challenges of climate change, land degradation and biodiversity loss through concerted action at the global, national and local levels. Rio-20 is a historic opportunity to learn what has worked and what is not, and to redouble our efforts to build the future we want. The Rio Convention Pavilion is an important place to support this dialogue. As part of the Cancun Agreements, developed and developing countries submitted mitigation plans to the UNFCCC.
  These plans are developed as part of the Bali Action Plan. Global protests call for action at the Paris climate summit. Preventing “dangerous” human interventions in the climate system is the ultimate goal of the UNFCCC. The UNFCCC aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic human intervention in the Earth`s climate system.  Such a level should be achieved within sufficient time to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable sustainable economic development.   With 197 parties ratified, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change commits to “stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interventions in the climate system.